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Диабет, последние новости

  1. The potential of P2X7 receptors as a therapeutic target, including inflammation and tumour progression.

    The potential of P2X7 receptors as a therapeutic target, including inflammation and tumour progression.

    Purinergic Signal. 2017 Nov 21;:

    Authors: Burnstock G, Knight GE

    Abstract
    Seven P2X ion channel nucleotide receptor subtypes have been cloned and characterised. P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) are unusual in that there are extra amino acids in the intracellular C terminus. Low concentrations of ATP open cation channels sometimes leading to cell proliferation, whereas high concentrations of ATP open large pores that release inflammatory cytokines and can lead to apoptotic cell death. Since many diseases involve inflammation and immune responses, and the P2X7R regulates inflammation, there has been recent interest in the pathophysiological roles of P2X7R and the potential of P2X7R antagonists to treat a variety of diseases. These include neurodegenerative diseases, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy and a number of diseases of peripheral organs, including the cardiovascular, airways, kidney, liver, bladder, skin and musculoskeletal. The potential of P2X7R drugs to treat tumour progression is discussed.

    PMID: 29164451 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

  2. Effects of pioglitazone therapy on blood parameters, weight and BMI: a meta-analysis.

    Effects of pioglitazone therapy on blood parameters, weight and BMI: a meta-analysis.

    Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2017;9:90

    Authors: Filipova E, Uzunova K, Kalinov K, Vekov T

    Abstract
    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common diseases worldwide and insulin insufficiency and insulin resistance are two main metabolic issues connected with it. The dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and T2DM is characterized by higher triglycerides (TGs), higher very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower apo A1. Pioglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione class, with a proven antihyperglycemic effect, is known to positively influence insulin sensitivity and β-cell function and to have the potential to alter the lipid profile.
    Methods: The aim of our meta-analysis is to summarize and determine the influence of pioglitazone on the glycemic profile and lipoprotein metabolism as well as on weight and BMI in order to highlight the benefit of pioglitazone therapy in patients with T2DM. A comprehensive literature search was conducted through the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, PsyInfo, eLIBRARY.ru (from 2000 until February 2016) to identify studies that investigate the effect of pioglitazone on the glycemic and lipid profile and on the weight and BMI. We chose the random-effects method as the primary analysis. Forest plots depict estimated results from the studies included in the analysis and funnel plots are used to evaluate publication bias. Sensitivity analyses were performed in order to evaluate the degree of influence of the consequent elimination of each individual study on the final result.
    Results: Of the 1536 identified sources only 15 randomised trials were included in the meta-analysis. Pioglitazone treatment was associated with improvement in the glycemic profile. It reduced FPG levels by a mean of 1.1-2 mmol/l and HbA1c by a mean of 0.9-1.3%. Our results reaffirmed the hypothesis that pioglitazone has a positive influence on the lipid profile of T2DM patients with increase in TC and HDL, no significant changes in LDL and notable decrease in TGs. Results also showed that pioglitazone therapy led to increase in both weight and BMI (WMD 1.755, 95% CI 0.674 to 2.837 and 1.145, 95% CI 0.389 to 1.901 respectively).
    Conclusion: Our results prove that the PPAR γ agonist pioglitazone has the potential to be beneficial to patients with T2DM.

    PMID: 29163673 [PubMed]

  3. Functional Mitochondria in Health and Disease.

    Functional Mitochondria in Health and Disease.

    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2017;8:296

    Authors: Herst PM, Rowe MR, Carson GM, Berridge MV

    Abstract
    The ability to rapidly adapt cellular bioenergetic capabilities to meet rapidly changing environmental conditions is mandatory for normal cellular function and for cancer progression. Any loss of this adaptive response has the potential to compromise cellular function and render the cell more susceptible to external stressors such as oxidative stress, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hypoxia. Mitochondria play a vital role in bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways and can rapidly adjust to meet the metabolic needs of the cell. Increased demand is met by mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion of individual mitochondria into dynamic networks, whereas a decrease in demand results in the removal of superfluous mitochondria through fission and mitophagy. Effective communication between nucleus and mitochondria (mito-nuclear cross talk), involving the generation of different mitochondrial stress signals as well as the nuclear stress response pathways to deal with these stressors, maintains bioenergetic homeostasis under most conditions. However, when mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations accumulate and mito-nuclear cross talk falters, mitochondria fail to deliver critical functional outputs. Mutations in mtDNA have been implicated in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative mitochondriopathies and complex diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, skin disorders, aging, and cancer. In some cases, drastic measures such as acquisition of new mitochondria from donor cells occurs to ensure cell survival. This review starts with a brief discussion of the evolutionary origin of mitochondria and summarizes how mutations in mtDNA lead to mitochondriopathies and other degenerative diseases. Mito-nuclear cross talk, including various stress signals generated by mitochondria and corresponding stress response pathways activated by the nucleus are summarized. We also introduce and discuss a small family of recently discovered hormone-like mitopeptides that modulate body metabolism. Under conditions of severe mitochondrial stress, mitochondria have been shown to traffic between cells, replacing mitochondria in cells with damaged and malfunctional mtDNA. Understanding the processes involved in cellular bioenergetics and metabolic adaptation has the potential to generate new knowledge that will lead to improved treatment of many of the metabolic, degenerative, and age-related inflammatory diseases that characterize modern societies.

    PMID: 29163365 [PubMed]

  4. Diabetes and Sepsis: Risk, Recurrence, and Ruination.

    Diabetes and Sepsis: Risk, Recurrence, and Ruination.

    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2017;8:271

    Authors: Frydrych LM, Fattahi F, He K, Ward PA, Delano MJ

    Abstract
    Sepsis develops when an infection surpasses local tissue containment. A series of dysregulated physiological responses are generated, leading to organ dysfunction and a 10% mortality risk. When patients with sepsis demonstrate elevated serum lactates and require vasopressor therapy to maintain adequate blood pressure in the absence of hypovolemia, they are in septic shock with an in-hospital mortality rate >40%. With improvements in intensive care treatment strategies, overall sepsis mortality has diminished to ~20% at 30 days; however, mortality continues to steadily climb after recovery from the acute event. Traditionally, it was thought that the complex interplay between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses led to sepsis-induced organ dysfunction and mortality. However, a closer examination of those who die long after sepsis subsides reveals that many initial survivors succumb to recurrent, nosocomial, and secondary infections. The comorbidly challenged, physiologically frail diabetic individuals suffer the highest infection rates. Recent reports suggest that even after clinical "recovery" from sepsis, persistent alterations in innate and adaptive immune responses exists resulting in chronic inflammation, immune suppression, and bacterial persistence. As sepsis-associated immune defects are associated with increased mortality long-term, a potential exists for immune modulatory therapy to improve patient outcomes. We propose that diabetes causes a functional immune deficiency that directly reduces immune cell function. As a result, patients display diminished bactericidal clearance, increased infectious complications, and protracted sepsis mortality. Considering the substantial expansion of the elderly and obese population, global adoption of a Western diet and lifestyle, and multidrug resistant bacterial emergence and persistence, diabetic mortality from sepsis is predicted to rise dramatically over the next two decades. A better understanding of the underlying diabetic-induced immune cell defects that persist following sepsis are crucial to identify potential therapeutic targets to bolster innate and adaptive immune function, prevent infectious complications, and provide more durable diabetic survival.

    PMID: 29163354 [PubMed]

  5. Homeostatic effect of laughter on diabetic cardiovascular complications: The myth turned to fact.

    Homeostatic effect of laughter on diabetic cardiovascular complications: The myth turned to fact.

    Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017 Nov 18;:

    Authors: Noureldein MH, Eid AA

    Abstract
    AIMS: Laughter has been used for centuries to alleviate pain in morbid conditions. It was not until 1976 that scientists thought about laughter as a form of therapy that can modulate hormonal and immunological parameters that affect the outcome of many serious diseases. Moreover, Laughter therapy was shown to be beneficial in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by delaying the onset of many diabetic complications. Laughter is also described to influence the cardiovascular and endothelial functions and thus may protect against diabetic cardiovascular complications. In this review, we outline the different biochemical, physiological and immunological mechanisms by which laughter may influence the overall state of wellbeing and enhance disease prognosis. We also focus on the biological link between laughter therapy and diabetic cardiovascular complications as well as the underlying mechanisms involved in T2DM.
    METHODS: reviewing all the essential databases for "laughter" and "type 2 diabetes mellitus".
    RESULTS: Although laughter therapy is still poorly investigated, recent studies show that laughter may retard the onset of diabetic complications, enhance cardiovascular functions and rectify homeostatic abnormalities associated with T2DM.
    CONCLUSIONS: laughter therapy is effective in delaying diabetic complications and should be used as an adjuvant therapy.

    PMID: 29162513 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]